Decentralized TreatmentCentralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are costly to build and operate, especially in areas with lower population densities and more dispersed communities.
Developing countries and smaller communities lack both the funding to construct centralized facilities and the technical expertise to manage and operate them. Further, installing them retrospectively is not economically or practically viable.
By contrast, small-scale decentralized treatment and water reuse in the community is gaining recognition as a very effective water management model for both developed and developing nations. Decentralization negates the need to build extensive wastewater collection networks and enables water reuse to help deliver local water security.
Decentralization is the most sustainable long-term solution for smaller communities and is more reliable and cost effective.
Technical selection is crucial in decentralized applications as these often receive highly variable flows and loadings, making it very difficult to consistently meet the treatment standards required. In addition, smaller communities operate on small budgets and have minimal skilled staff.
Technology providers have varied little in their approach to this problem; still relying on costly and complex biological processes designed for larger systems, whose limitations remain unresolved.